Science Library

Cosmetic Herbs, Vitamins, Bases, Minerals and Oils or LaVie Organique Skin Care Products.



Algae Extract is a potent, active substance that can be used to normalize the skin’s moisture content and provide suppleness to the epidermis (upper most layer of the skin). Algae extract is also rich in iodine, which is diffused through the skin to stimulate the metabolic processes, resulting in skin tightening and overall youthful appearance

Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract is produced from the succulent leaves of the aloe plant, Aloe Barbadensis, which is known for its ability to moisturize and heal skin.

Aloe vera 200X – An extraordinary desert plant containing hundreds of enzymes, minerals and vitamins, soothing and cool on the skin.  We use a certified organic, powerful whole plant extract of Aloe to maximize its many healing properties.  Aloe is a rich emollient known to promote healing to damaged or dry skin. A natural sunscreen, it is soothing and moisturizing. Used topically for cuts, scratches, bruises, sore or irritated skin, burns and sunburns.

Annatto plant contains protein, sucrose, beta-carotenoids, cellulose, essential oil and pigments, and is effective against skin aging.

Antioxidants – many of the ingredients chosen for LaVie Organique products are known to have antioxidant properties.

Antioxidants scavenge free radicals, which are damaging compounds that naturally occur in the body.  Free radicals can alter cells, tamper with DNA and can cause cell death.  Environmental toxins (including ultraviolet rays from the sun, radiation, cigarette smoke, and air pollution) also give rise to these damaging particles. Scientists believe that free radicals contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of health problems including cancer and heart disease. Antioxidants such as polyphenols in the LaVie Organique Proprietary Blend (Organic Extracts of White Tea Leaf, Soap Bark and Sea Buckthorn Seed) can neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause.

Apple (Pyrus malus) Fruit Pulp – We use fresh apple in our Exfoliating Mask because it contributes enzymes, vitamins and naturally occurring antioxidants. Apples are a natural source of Malic Acid. In cosmetics Malic Acid functions as an antioxidant and is an important alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) ingredient.

Avocado Oil (Persea gratissima) – This restorative oil is extracted directly from the dehydrated flesh of the avocado fruit, and is valued in cosmetics for its lovely texture and softness on the skin.  Easily absorbed by the skin, it is a good source of vitamins A, D & E, amino acids and sterols. Avocado Oil is known to accelerate healing, and is recommended for chronic eczema and other skin disorders.


Beet Root Extract (Beta Vulgaris) is a powerful antioxidant that will benefit the skin and protect it from premature aging due to the free-radical neutralizing effect that the antioxidants contain.


Caffeine – Minimizes redness and puffiness and we consider it an essential ingredient in our Eye Cream.  An excellent anti-inflammatory ingredient, it is also a good source of antioxidants.  Scientists are evaluating caffeine for its potential in helping repair UV damage to the skin; a recent study on mice indicates that topically applied caffeine may help get rid of damaged skin cells.  Caffeine is a synergistically active ingredient that assists with absorption of other ingredients in the formulas.

Caprylic Acid is a specialized esterification of coconut oil that helps spread nutrients into skin.

Cetyl alcohol is a fatty alcohol used to help control the consistency of products as well as act as an emulsifier. It helps skin and hair retain moisture, and gives a velvety after touch.

Cetyl Glycoside acts as an emulsifier used in oil in water formulations. It helps skin and hair retain moisture, and gives a velvety after touch.

Quinoa Extract (Chenopodium) is filled with essential fatty acids along with amino acids, saponins, minerals and vitamins, all important for healthy skin structure.

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) Leaf Oil – Mildly astringent, Cinnamon is stimulating to the skin and warms the body.  Cinnamon also has antiseptic and astringent properties.

Citric acid is a very powerful antioxidant that not only stimulates collagen production but contains the skin-damaging activities of free radicals. Consequently, citric acid can actually improve the health of skin cells which in turn promotes healing and the ability of the skin to protect itself against a variety of harmful environmental factors.

Citrus Aurantium Bergamia (Bergamot) Fruit Oil has antibacterial, deodorizing, refreshing, soothing, and uplifting properties which make it excellent for ensuring healthy and vital skin. Bergamot essential oil has a fresh, citrus and slightly spicy aroma and is powerfully refreshing, uplifting and invigorating and helps maintain a balanced mood.

Coco-glucocide is derived from coconut oil and fruit sugar. As an anionic surfactant, it mildly cleanses the skin by helping water to mix with oil and dirt so that they can be rinsed off. As an emulsifier, it keeps the oil and water parts of an emulsion from separating, and it also enhances the properties of primary cleansing and moisturizing agents contained in a product.

Co-Q10 – Coenzyme Q10 is a powerful antioxidant.  An enzyme produced by our bodies, we know that CoQ10 improves both the rate and efficiency of energy production in the cells, and at the same time protects mitochondria from free radicals. It helps promote collagen and elastin production processes, which are helpful in reducing wrinkles.  Unfortunately as we age our bodies produce less CoQ10, and we produce less collagen and elastin.  A recent German study suggests that CoQ10 used topically can reduce signs of aging caused by exposure to sunlight, so we consider this a very helpful ingredient in skin care.

Colloidal Oatmeal helps smooth and comfort itchy, dry skin.

Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba (Guar) Gum is derived from a legume and acts as a natural thickener, emulsifier and stabilizer for the skin.


Decyl Glucoside – Derived from plants (glucose and coconut), this is a mild, biodegradable and sulfate-free surfactant used as a cleansing ingredient.

Decyl Olive Oil Esters – Olive Esters are derived from olive oil and provide extraordinary hydrating performance and mildness. Compatible with all skin types, including sensitive and reactive skin, Olive Esters offer extra nourishment and long-term moisturizing effects. Olive Esters are extremely proficient in hydrating dry and tense skin caused by over-cleansing or exfoliating.

Distilled Water – Our water is purified and distilled.


Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules) Leaf Oil – Antiseptic, antibacterial, anti-fungal and an antioxidant; this fragrant oil is used in cleansers, massage formulations and bath oils for its antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties and its cooling, soothing effect on the skin. Antispasmodic.

Eucalyptus leaves contain tannins (which are believed to help reduce inflammation), flavonoids (such as quercetin, which has antioxidant properties), and volatile oils. Eucalyptus oil is a rich source of the antiseptic substance cineole (sometimes referred to as eucalyptol).

Historically, topical ointments containing eucalyptus oil have been used in traditional Aboriginal medicines to heal wounds and fungal infections. The therapeutic uses of eucalyptus soon spread to other traditional medicine systems, including Chinese, Indian (Ayurvedic), and Greco-European.  Laboratory studies established that eucalyptus oil contains substances with strong antibacterial properties. The leaves are believed to help reduce inflammation.


Geranium Oil – An ingredient with antifungal, antibacterial and immune system stimulating effects, Geranium Oil also is used as a natural fragrance. It is good for acne, bruises, broken capillaries, burns, congested skin, cuts, dermatitis, eczema, oily and mature skin, and as a mosquito repellent.  Aromatherapy for depression and nervous tension.

Glyceryl Stearate acts as a lubricant on the skin’s surface, which gives the skin a soft and smooth appearance. It also slows the loss of water from the skin by forming a barrier on the skin’s surface.

Glycerin (Vegetable derived) – A rich humectant (water-attracting agent), Glycerin is emollient and lubricating.  Our glycerin occurs naturally in - and is extracted from - vegetable oils.  Glycerin has been used in cosmetic formulations for thousands of years. (Note: The synthetic version of this ingredient is highly irritating and we recommend avoiding it.)

Grape (Vitus vinifera) – We use several ingredients derived from grapes, including:

Grape Alcohol; Grape  Fruit Extract; Grape Fruit Pulp – the medicinal value of grapes has been relied upon for thousands of years. European folk healers developed an ointment from the sap of grapevines to cure skin diseases. Many of the health properties of grapes may actually come from the seeds themselves.

Among other beneficial effects, the active compounds in grapes are believed to have antioxidant properties. Antioxidants found in grapes can neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause.

Grapes contain Vitamin E, flavonoids, linoleic acid, and compounds called procyanidins (also known as condensed tannins, pycnogenols, and oligomeric proanthocyanidins or OPCs); these compounds are highly concentrated in grape seeds. These healthful compounds can also be found in lower concentrations in the skin of the grape. Procyanidins are also found in grape juice and wine, but in lower concentrations. Resveratrol is another of grape's healthful compounds which are related to procyanidins and found mainly in the skins.


Hammamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Extract is an astringent produced from the leaves and bark of the North American Witch-hazel shrub. It is a strong anti-oxidant and astringent, which makes it very useful in fighting acne.

Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) seed oil is the non-volatile oil expressed from sunflower seeds. Sunflower oil is commonly used in cosmetic formulations as an emollient. Its main skincare benefit is its ability to bind moisture to the skin.

Honey – Raw, organic honey is recognized for its natural soothing effect on the skin and is prized for its antibiotic properties, minerals, enzymes and vitamins.  Bacteria do not grow in honey because of its natural antibacterial properties. Raw honey is not heated over ambient hive temperature (<120 degrees maximum) because honey loses most of its natural antibacterial properties when heated.

Honeysuckle Flower (Lonicera caprifolium) Extract – A natural plant extract that also has natural functional qualities similar to a preservative.

Hops (Humulus lupulus) Flower Extract – An antimicrobial and sedative ingredient, Hops calms, tones and softens the skin.

Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Aerial Plant Extract – This natural astringent is rich in silica and silicic acids, which help mend broken bones and form collagen (an important protein found in connective tissue, skin, bone, cartilage and ligaments). Horsetail extract is also a source of antioxidants.  It has a softening and smoothing effect on the skin, and also helps to strengthen vein and capillary walls.  The plant contains a variety of minerals that contribute to skin health, including potassium, manganese, sulfur, and magnesium.

Hungarian Chili Peppers (Capsicum frutenscens) – The hot and spicy quality of chili pepper is primarily due to a substance in chilis known as capsaicin, which has well-established pain-relieving and circulation-stimulating qualities. Chilis have been used topically for centuries and across many cultures for medicinal purposes; capsaicin is used to reduce itching and inflammation associated with psoriasis.  Its stimulating qualities help remove toxins and refresh the cells.  Chilies contain vitamins A and C; flavonoids and carotenoids (plant pigments with antioxidant properties).

Hyaluronic Acid – A protein that also is a component of the skin. Effective as a water binder, it is able to bind 1000 times its weight in water, and helps soften and hydrate the skin.

Hydrolyzed Quinoa Protein: Quinoa has one of the highest levels of Protein amongst all the world’s grains. When used on skin, it repairs damage and forms a protective barrier to prevent the environmental stresses from damaging the skin. It also binds moisture and provides nutrients for the skin.

Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein – Also known as Phyto Peptides, this is an effective substitute for hydrolyzed animal protein.  This plant-derived protein offers conditioning and moisturizing properties, and helps skin retain moisture to improve its overall appearance.


Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) Seed Oil – This rich oil helps the jojoba desert plant retain water during the long summer drought. In cosmetics, it acts as a humectant and creates a protective film over the skin that helps keep moisture in. Jojoba oil is similar in structure to human sebum and is able to effectively penetrate the skin. It contributes to cellular renewal.

Juglans Regia (Walnut) Shell Powder is a powder of the ground shells of the walnut, used as a soft yet effective exfoliator to rid the skin of dullness and roughness.


Lactic Acid – An alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) that is present in fermented milk. Helps to release dead skin cells from surface of the skin and reduces wrinkles, as it supports smoother skin texture.

Lecithin (non-GMO) – A vegetable extract high in natural fatty acids and an ingredient that contributes excellent moisturizing effects due to its water-binding quality; our Lecithin is sourced from soy that is not grown from genetically modified organisms.  Present in all living animal or plant cells, Lecithin is used in cosmetics as an antioxidant, emulsifier, and emollient, moisturizing ingredient.

Lemon (Citrus medica) Fruit Extract – Zesty lemon fruit has antioxidant, antibacterial and antiseptic properties. It is stimulating, a tonic, and alleviates oily skin while brightening dull skin and calming redness. Astringent, it checks excessive perspiration. Lemon also balances pH and helps balance fluid accumulation in skin cells.  In aromatherapy it is energizing, clears the mind, relieves depression and is both refreshing and strengthening.

Lemon Grass (Cymbopogen citrates) Essential Oil – An antimicrobial and analgesic plant with antioxidant properties, Lemongrass improves circulation and is purifying, refreshing and hydrating. In aromatherapy it is uplifting. Also used as an insect repellent.


Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (Vitamin C) – A stable Vitamin C derivative known for its good antioxidant properties.

Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf is obtained from the dried leaves of the peppermint plant. Its properties for skin include: antimicrobial, anti-irritant, astringent, cleansing, and stimulating. Peppermint is best for the following skin types: blemished, dry, normal-oily and oily skin.

Menthol – A natural antiseptic and analgesic that helps to calm the skin and reduce redness.

Molasses Extract softens, nourishes, and hydrates the skin thanks to its high concentrations of minerals such as iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium, copper, and manganese.


Neroli (Citrus aurantium amara) Oil –Soothing and excellent for dry and aging skin, calming Neroli is distilled from the flowers of the bitter orange tree.  Aroma therapists use it to ease nervous tension.

Niacinamide improves skin’s moisture barrier, allowing for the natural production of collagen. It also strengthens the stratum corneum, or outermost layer of skin, and increases the rate of skin surface renewal to help reverse the appearance of past damage such as discoloration or the look of enlarged pores.


Olea Europea (Olive) Fruit Extract exerts a free radical scavenging activity that has a direct impact on skin health, preventing oxidative damage associated with wrinkle formation, skin thinning and dehydration.

Olea Europea (Olive) Leaf Extract contains flavonoids and oleanolic acid, which stimulate the components of the connective tissue and regularize the tissue – thereby boosting the health of the skin. It is also very rich in Vitamin C, an antioxidant that helps fight free radicals.


Paprika – Unusually rich in Vitamin C and antioxidants. The capsicum peppers used for paprika contain capsaicin, which has well-established pain-relieving and circulation-stimulating qualities. These peppers have been used topically (and as a food spice) for centuries and across many cultures for medicinal purposes; topically the active ingredient capsaicin is used to reduce itching and inflammation associated with psoriasis.  The stimulating qualities help remove toxins and refresh the cells.  Additional benefits: Paprika includes vitamin A, flavonoids and carotenoids (plant pigments with antioxidant properties).

Pearl Powder – Crushed and powdered pearls are traditionally used in China as an anti-inflammatory and detoxification ingredient to improve the appearance of the skin.  Pearls contains numerous amino acids and minerals that support skin health.

Peppermint (Mentah piperita) Oil – An excellent antiseptic and astringent, Peppermint Oil provides anti-inflammatory action as it soothes and tones blemished, irritated skin. In aroma therapy it is vitalizing and uplifting.

Pink Grapefruit (Citrus grandis) Peel Essential Oil – Known for its stimulating effect in boosting the lymphatic action in the skin and assisting in detoxifying cells, this ingredient  tones the skin and is antiseptic.  Helpful for acne and congested and oily skin.  It also contains some Vitamin C, a helpful antioxidant.

Pomegranate (Punica granatum linn) Seed Extract – Nourishing and moisturizing, Pomegranate Seed Extract is used to repair the skin and improve elasticity.  Research attributes the remarkable efficacy of pomegranate seed extract to the seed’s composition of fatty acids and tocopherols.  Studies indicate that it improves collagen synthesis and also strengthens the epidermis.  Offering strong anti-inflammatory properties and powerful antioxidant action, this is a very important ingredient for skin care.

Potassium Hydroxide – A highly alkaline ingredient used in very small amounts in cosmetics to modulate (balance) the pH of the  skin.

Potassium Sorbate is a food-grade, mild preservative used in cosmetic and skin care formulas as a paraben alternative to prevent or retard the growth of microorganisms and protect products from spoiling.

Pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) Bark Extract – Antimicrobial and antibacterial. Reviving, balancing, regulating, purifying.

Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis (Sweet Almond) Seed Meal is a powder made from ground almonds, used as a soft yet effective exfoliator to rid the skin of dullness and roughness.

Pyrus Cydonia Seed Extract (Quince) is characterized by its soothing and hydrating properties. It also supports the natural moisture processes of the skin to get and retain moisture.

Pyrus Malus (Apple) Pectin Extract is a natural gelling agent derived from apples and used to improve the consistency of our masque.


Quince (Cydonia oblonga) Fruit Pulp – Known for its antioxidant and restorative qualities, this lovely fruit serves to purify and soothe irritated skin, and it also reduces sebum saturation.  It supplies natural Vitamin E.


Retinol is a vitamin A derivative that helps the skin produce collagen, a natural component of the dermis that gives skin its youthful, full appearance.

Retinyl Palmitate (Vitamin A) – An important antioxidant vitamin, free-radical scavenger, this ingredient contributes to cellular renewal.

Rice Bran (Oryza sativa) – Rich in Vitamen E, Rice Bran is soothing and calming to the skin.

Rosa Canina Fruit Oil is high in vitamins A and C and has a strengthening effect on capillaries and connective tissue. Rose Oil is antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and astringent. It has been used for centuries to soothe and heal irritated chapped skin.

Rose Flower Oil has mild astringent and toning properties.

Rose Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) Leaf Oil – A natural antiseptic, tonic and astringent that also promotes healing. Geranium has the unusual ability to balance Sebum production, making it valuable for all skin types.  Especially helpful for those with broken capillaries, combination or dry skin, eczema, mature and sensitive complexions, wrinkles.  Used in aromatherapy for anxiety, depression and menopausal problems.

Rose Hip (Rosa canina) Seed Powder – High in linoleic and linolenic acids as well as Vitamin C, this ingredient is valued as an antioxidant and tissue regenerator.

Rosemary Leaf (Rosemarinus officinalis) Extract – An invigorating toner and purifier with antimicrobial properties, Rosemary is prized as a skin rejuvenator and general stimulant.  In aromatherapy, it reduces mental strain and fatigue, and promotes confidence by minimizing anxiety.


Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) Seed Extract CO2 - Bio-active substances in the oil from the seed and pulp are used in our anti-aging formulas.  Sea Buckthorn Seed appears to promote cell tissue regeneration, thus aiding in the healing of wounds and restoring skin tissue. Sea Buckthorn oil is said to have proven effective in the treatment of a wide variety of skin conditions. The extract seems to absorb UV rays, and it may afford some protection from sun damage.  We use a certified organic extract to concentrate this plant’s wonderful properties.

Seaweed Extract in Dead Sea Brine – Seaweed extract features the same nutrients, trace elements and amino acids present in human blood plasma, and this allows it to penetrate the skin barrier. It accelerates the elimination of toxins from cells and contributes to cellular renewal.  Magnesium occurs naturally in Dead Sea Brine and helps re-mineralize, balance and soothe the skin.

Sesamum Indicum (Sesame) Sea Oil forms a barrier on the skin's surface. It has a unique ability to soften skin, lips and hair. And since it holds moisture in, sesame oil can help your skin stay hydrated.

Shea Butter (Butyrospermum parkii), Fair Trade, Raw -– A rich butter obtained from the nut of the Karite tree. Cherished for its contribution to cellular renewal, and its excellent moisturizing and nourishing abilities, Shea Butter is used as a natural sun block.

Silk Amino Acids – These proteins give the skin a very soft feel and also provide antioxidant action. Naturally hydroscopic material, silk proteins provide excellent moisture-binding qualities to condition the skin and help prevent skin dehydration.  Silk amino acids are obtained by the hydrolysis of silk - a natural protein fiber.

Soap Bark (Quillaja saponaria) Extract – The inner bark of this flowering plant extract was traditionally used as a natural cleanser and for its medicinal properties.  It is demonstrated to offer astringent, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial,and  immunostimulant properties.

Sodium Salicylate – A sodium salt of salicylic acid used for its excellent anti-inflammatory action.

Sorbitol (derived from pure cane sugar) – Our Sorbitol from pure cane sugar is a humectant (water-attracting/binding) ingredient, as well as an emollient.

Squalene (derived from Olive Leaf) – Squalene boosts the skin's ability to naturally regenerate, nourish, hydrate, oxygenate and protect itself. A naturally occurring component in human sebum, it is highly effective in skin care formulas as an emulsifier and a synergizing ingredient that enhances overall skin penetration of the other ingredients in the formula. Squalane produced from Olive Leaf is a saturated hydrocarbon, obtained through hydrogenation.  It is highly pure, stable against oxidation, free from heavy metals and is totally innocuous to the skin. It adheres to the skin and its natural lipids better than other oils. Its emollient and moisturizing properties are excellent.

Stearyl Alcohol - When used in the formulation of skin care products, Stearyl Alcohol acts as a lubricant on the skin surface, which gives the skin a soft, smooth appearance.

Sweet Orange (Citrus aurantium dulcis) Oil – Contains flavonoids and vitamins A, B, C and E. A mild sedative, it calms dermatitis and balances oily skin. In aroma therapy it is relaxing, reduces nervous tension and is considered uplifting.

Sweet Orange (Citrus aurantium dulcis) Peel Wax – Sweet orange peel contributes toning properties. Rich in AHA fruit acids and polysaccharides, it also has good hydrating properties. In wax form, it is a conditioning agent.


Tapioca Starch provides a luxuriously soft feeling to the skin, while simultaneously serving as a natural thickening agent for creams.

Theobroma Cacao (Cocoa) Seed Butter is made from the vegetable fat of the cocoa bean. It lubricates and protects the skin and also helps to fade scars. It is a well-known folk remedy that has been used for decades.

Titanuim Dioxideis a physical sunscreen that reflects UV light before it can damage your skin, therefore guarding against skin cancer and other detrimental effects of sun exposure.

Tocopherol (Vitamin E) – Natural vitamin E, an anti-oxidant; processed so that it is stable and deterioration is minimized (pure, unprocessed vitamin E degrades quickly in products).


Ubiquinone is a nutrient that is produced naturally in the body. A gradual decline in the natural production of Ubiquinone that occurs with age weakens the effectiveness of the fibers that keep skin firm, known as collagen and elastin. Ubiquinone supplementation may reduce the breakdown of collagen.


Vitamin E is extremely versatile. It promotes healing, is a strong antioxidant, and helps prevent premature aging.


White Tea (Camellia sinensis) Leaf Extract – is extracted from unfermented white tea leaves; it contains a significant concentration of powerful antioxidants called polyphenols.  The antioxidant effects of polyphenols appear to be greater than the effects of vitamin C.   Unfermented white tea also contains alkaloids including caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, which all provide the skin with a stimulating and regenerative effect.

White Willow (Salix alba) Bark Extract – This botanical extract provides exceptionally fast and effective anti-irritant action, and as an astringent, it helps purify the skin. The use of willow bark dates back to 400 BC when Hippocrates advised patients to chew on the bark to reduce fever and inflammation. Willow bark has also been used for centuries in China and Europe, and continues to be used today for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. The bark of white willow contains salicin and tannins, which are thought to be responsible for the pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects of the herb.

Walnuts (Juglans regia) – Rich in antioxidants (polyphenols), we also like finely ground Walnuts for their gentle exfoliating action.


Xantham Gum is used to prepare water gels. Is also used in oil-in-water emulsions to help stabilize the oil droplets against coalescence, and has some skin hydrating properties.


Zea Mays (Corn) Silk Extract has healing and soothing abilities that can effectively treat topical problems and skin irritations as well as inflammation.

Zinc Oxide – Naturally occurring in salts from the Dead Sea, some of the most beneficial salts known. Zinc helps to re-mineralize and calm the skin and is commonly used as an active ingredient in sun protection formulas.


  1. The Herbal Body Book by Jeanne Rose, Grosset & Dunlap, NY 1976

  2. The Complete Medicinal Herbal by Penelope Ody, Dorling Kindersley Ltd, London 1993

  3. Natural Organic Hair and Skin Care by Audrey Hampton, Organica Press, Tampa, FL 1987

  4. The Complete Book of Essential Oils & Aromatherapy by Valerie Ann Worwood, New World Library, San Rafael, CA 1991

  5. The Encyclopedia of Essential Oils by Julia Lawless, Element Books Ltd. Rockport, MA 1992

  6. Aromatherapy Workbook by Marcel Lavabre, Healing Arts Press, Rochester, VT 1990

  7. The Complete Woman's Herbal by Anne McIntyre, Henry Holt & Co., NY 1995